Wednesday, October 01, 2008


Line drivers and receivers are commonly used to exchange data between two or more points (nodes) on a network. Reliable data communications can be difficult in the presence of induced noise, ground level differences, impedance mismatches, failure to effectively bias for idle line conditions, and other hazards associated with installation of a network. The connection between two or more elements (drivers and receivers) should be considered a transmission line if the rise and/or fall time is less than half the time for the signal to travel from the transmitter to the receiver. Standards have been developed to insure compatibility between units provided by different manufacturers, and to allow for reasonable success in transferring data over specified distances and/or data rates. The Electronics Industry Association (EIA) has produced standards for RS485, RS422, RS232, and RS423 that deal with data communications. Suggestions are often made to deal with practical problems that might be encountered in a typical network. EIA standards where previously marked with the prefix "RS" to indicate recommended standard; however, the standards are now generally indicated as "EIA" standards to identify the standards organization. While the standards bring uniformity to data communications, many areas are not specifically covered and remain as "gray areas" for the user to discover (usually during installation) on his own.

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